A modern printed edition of the Tanakh.

Tanakh (תנ״ך) (also Tanach, Tenakh or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. The acronym is formed from the initial Hebrew letters of the Tanakh's three traditional subdivisions:

  1. Torah (תורה), meaning "teaching" or "law," includes the Five Books of Moses. The printed form of the Torah is called "the Chumash" (חומש), meaning "five-part." The Torah is also known by its Greek name, "the Pentateuch," which similarly means "five scrolls."
  2. Nevi'im (נביאים), meaning "Prophets." This division includes the books which, as a whole, cover the chronological era from the entrance of the Israelites into the Land until the Babylonian captivity of Judah (the "period of prophecy"). However, they exclude Chronicles, which covers the same period. The Nevi'im are often divided into the Earlier Prophets, which are generally historical, and the Later Prophets, which contain more exhortational prophecies.
  3. Ketuvim (כתובים), meaning "Writings," are sometimes also known by the Greek title "Hagiographa." These encompass all the remaining books, and include the Five Scrolls. They are sometimes also divided into such categories as the "wisdom books" of Job, Ecclesiastes, and Proverbs, the "poetry books" of Psalms, Lamentations and Song of Solomon, and the "historical books" of Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles.

The Tanakh is known to Christians as the Old Testament. The name is not used by Jews because, according to Judaism, there is no New Testament. In academic writing the Tanakh is often referred to as the "Hebrew Bible", to avoid using terms that are specific to either Christians or Jews.

Books of the Tanakh

Torah (Law)

Nevi'im (Prophets)

Nevi'im Rishonim (Former Prophets)

  • Yehoshua (Joshua)
  • Shophtim (Judges)
  • Shmu'el (I Samuel & II Samuel)
  • Mlak'him (I Kings & II Kings)

Nevi'im Aharonim (Latter Prophets)

  • Yesha'ayahu (Isaiah)
  • Yirmyahu (Jeremiah)
  • Yekhezqiel (Ezekiel)

Trei Asar (The Twelve)

  • Hoshea (Hosea)
  • Yo'el (Joel)
  • Amos (Amos)
  • Ovadhaya (Obadiah)
  • Yonah (Jonah)
  • Mikhah (Micah)
  • Nakhum (Nahum)
  • Khavhakuk (Habakkuk)
  • Tsephanyah (Zephaniah)
  • Khaggai (Haggai)
  • Zkharyah (Zechariah)
  • Mal'akhi (Malachi)

Ketuvim (Writings)

Sifrei Emet

  • Tehillim (Psalms)
  • Mishlei (Proverbs)
  • Iyyobh (Job)

Hamesh Megillot

  • Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs)
  • Ruth (Ruth)
  • Eikhah (Lamentations)
  • Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes)
  • Ester (Esther)


  • Dani'el (Daniel)
  • Ezra (Ezra and Nehemiah)
  • Divrei ha-Yamim (I Chronicles and II Chronicles)

See also

External links